Sperm donation
Sperm donation is a programme which gives possibilities to have children in case of absolute male infertility or if woman is single. A procedure with donor sperm involvement is conducted when because of some reasons sperm is not produced in husband’s testicles. Other widespread reasons are serious genetic maladies, which can be transmitted to a child. Single women, who do not have sexual partner for conception, resort to the help of a sperm donor. Sperm donors undergo a special selection which includes genetic examination. 
Their health is always under medical control. For collection and storage of seminal fluid sperm banks are established. The most famous and largest sperm banks are situated in the USA and Denmark. Such banks also exist in Ukraine (mainly in large reproductive clinics). Donor sperm is cryopreserved and stored in special containers. Donors undergo special selection including medical investigation. 
Their health is always under medical control. Clients select a suitable donor according to phenotypic description. There is information about donor’s age, eye and hair colour, height, weight and education can be found in catalogues. Usually recipients select donors who are alike or by some other criteria, for instance, blood group, etc.Vital difference from a standard IVF programme is in using of a decryopreserved sperm. In other aspects, if both members of a couple are infertile (male and female factor), a standard IVF programme is used, but after puncture cells are fertilized with donor’s sperm or artificial insemination is applied (if woman’s reproductive function is normal). 
After receipt donor’s sperm is cryopreserved. Six months later donor undergoes all analyses one more time. If there is no disease, this genetic material can be used for artificial insemination. Donor sperm is used in artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). In clinics use of donor sperm is permitted if it is offered by other establishments, which have sperm bank. For programme conduction a donor fills a statement – a sperm donor’s obligation – and concludes an agreement with a medical establishment. Doctors conduct donor’s medical examination; supervise over conduction and results of laboratory examination in accordance with an investigation schedule. 
Before sperm donation 3-5 day sex abstinence is advised. Ejaculate is gathered in a special sterile container, which has been premarked. This procedure is done in a special room, which has a separate entrance and a washstand. Embryologist cryopreserves and depreserves sperm, evaluates sperm quality before and after cryopreservation, ensures required conditions of sperm storage, keeps record of reproductive material. 
A donor is paid compensation for cooperation and strict observance of terms of agreements. Anonymity and privacy are preserved. Clients are not given donors’ personal information. A donor does not have any parental rights to children; he is not registered as father, and does not bear any alimentary responsibilities.